Pattern of missionization of the Philippines by friars

Pattern of missionization of the Philippines by the friars

While the military paved the way, Catholicism completed its conquest of all but the southernmost islands of the archipelago. The missionary zeal of regular orders was crucial, trumping problems like local defiance, language gaps between the missionaries and communities, and lack of missionary manpower that plagued early evangelization efforts. Legaspi’s pilot and chaplain, Fray Andres de Urdaneta, led the charge, along with five other Augustinian fathers. Drawing from missionary experiences in the America, the Augustinians delayed baptisms until the candidates demonstrated at least some evidence of Christian knowledge.

In 1569, after reinforcements from Mexico arrived, the Augustinians took Cebu under their wing and, remembering the image of the Santo Nino recovered there, called the new Spanish settlement Santisimo Nombre de Jesus (the Most Holy Name of Jesus). The friars then followed Legazpi to Panay. Displaying commitment and dedication, an Augustinian, Fray Juan de Alba, subsequently learned the Hiligaynon language to aid in converting the populace. Meanwhile the seizure of Manila promted the friars also to proselytize in Luzon. Their eventual success heartened the Church to send more missionaries to the islands. Four orders joined the Augustinians: the Franciscan (1577), Jesuits (1581), Dominicans (1587), and Recolects (1606). They divided the archipelago into spiritual jurisdictions – the Augustinians and Dominicans took northern and central Luzon; the Franciscans, southern Luzon; the Jesuits, southern Visayas and Mindanao; and the Recollects, northeast Luzon, its nethermost islands, northern Visayas, Palawan and Mindanao.

Missionization followed a regular pattern. Friars converted the local chief and his entourage, convinced that they would be followed by their constituencies. Friars then set up their mission, including a convent, church and school. They provided children with pre-baptismal instruction, to ensure that future members of the community were Catholics and sympathetic towards the Spanish. To earn the trust of potential converts, friars eschewed Spanish and conducted catechism in the local languages. Of course translation was not always feasible: Latin and Spanish words for concepts such as God, the Holy Spirit, and grace were retained where they had no equivalents in the vernacular tongues. Visual aids complemented the teaching: depictions of a fiery hell instilled fear among coverts, convincing them to remain faithful.[1]

 

[1] A New History of Southeast Asia By M.C. Ricklefs, Bruce Lockhart, Albert Lau, Portia Reyes, Maitrii Aung-Thwin, 88-89.

Repost: 10 Augustinian built heritage churches in the Philippines you should see

This year, 2015, marks the 450th year of the presence of the Augustinians in the Philippines, the 450th year of the finding of the image of the Sto. Nino in Cebu and the 50th anniversary of the Minor Basilica of Sto. Nino. This post, celebrates these milestones by honoring the pioneering Augustinian order thru the churches that they built. To simplify things, I based it on the four churches inscribed under the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, UNESCO World Heritage list and the rest, a selection of Augustinian built churches known for their outstanding architecture, and are declared National Cultural Treasures (NCT). Boljoon, other than a NCT, is also nominated in the Baroque Churches of the Philippines extensionlist. And of course, The Minor Basilica of Sto. Nino is an important shrine and is a declared National Historical Landmark. simbahan-san-agustin Continue readings…. ORIGINAL POST. ____________________________________ Source: http://simbahan.net/2015/04/28/10-augustinian-built-heritage-churches-in-the-philippines-you-should-see/

Barasoain Church, Bulacan

Location: this town is located at the same altitude as its matrix, Malolos, which is just 10 minutes away by car. It is bounded on the north by Calumpit, Paombong and Quingua (Plaridel); on the east by Santa Isabel; on the south by Malolos; and on the west by Paombong.

Foundation: Barasoain was a barrio visit of malolos until 1859, the year it separated from its matrix. Its titular patroness is Our Lady of mt. Carmel. In 1866, it had 10,516 souls; its population decreased to 9,618 in 1896. No figures are available for 1980.

Construction of the Church: Fr. Francisco Arriola, appointed first parish on June 1, 2859, built the convent. A small ermita, constructed by Fr. Melchor Fernandez in 1816 while he was parish priest of Malolos (1816-1840), served as temporary parish church. One of the existing bells bears the year 1870. It was installed by Fr. Emterio Ruperez. It was donated by the “principalia (sic) of Malolos.” And dedicated to the Our Lady of Mt. Carmel of Barasoain. Fr. Francisco Royo replaced the temporary chapel with a hewn stone church built between 1871 and 1878. This was soon destroyed by fire. The only remnant of this church is one of its bells, installed by Fr. Royo on February 30, 1873 and dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. Fr. Juan Giron who succeeded him, used the chapel of the cemetery until this one, too, was destroyed by the earthquake of 1880. Fr. Giron then built temporary chapel of nipa and bamboo which was burned down in 1884, during the solemn celebrations of the feast of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel. In 1885, Fr. Giron hired the services of contractor by the name of Magpayo and started, a fundamentis, the construction of a massive church made of masonry and bricks. The church was completed under Fr. Giron’s supervision. Jorde does not specify the year of its completion; he says only that, “at the time it was completed the pockets of Fr. Giron were drained.” In 1889, Fr. Martin Arconada started the construction of the tower and the restoration of the convent. Three bells were installed in 1897. One of them is dedicated to St. Martin, Bishop, and was donated by Fr. Martin Arconada. In 1894, Fr. Miguel de Vera undertook another restoration of the convent.

Recently, both buildings have undergone careful and thorough, although not very accurate, restoration under the supervision of the National Historical Institute, in collaboration with the then Department of Tourism. One wonders that could have been the motive behind the shrouding of the beautiful stone columns of themain altar with makeshift plywood retable. On August 1, 1973, the complex of convent and church was declared a “National Landmark.”

Style of the Church: Amon the various features of the façade, the most evident are perhaps those belonging to the Baroque style. The gracefully undulating line running up and down the pediment is echoed successively in the façade, the bell tower and the recessed rose window which cuts the cornice of the center.

The lopwer level comprises the recessed semi-circular arch of the main entrance arch of the main entrance which supported by a three column set and is flanked on both sides by smaller entrances, each supported by one column and recessed half niches. The overcrowded first level is balanced by the bareness of the second level. An empty blind niche on this level echoes the semi-circular movement complemented by the undulating pediment line that is broken by wing-shpaed finials.

The recent restoration preserved the original pattern. However, there are some fanciful feats like the abortive flutings of the columns which detract from Neo-Classic sobriety.

The octagonal four-story bell tower has alternating open and false windows which rise in uneven modules. The moduyles end up in the crenelated base of the pointed pinnacle.

Source: Angels in  Stone, Fr. Pedro Galende, OSA

Immaculate Conception Parish, Batac, Ilocos Norte

Immaculate Concepcio, Batac, Ilocos NorteThe town was founded by the Augustinians in 1587 under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception. It is the second oldest town established by the Augustinians in the province of Ilocos Norte. Hence, in 1987 Batac reached its 4th centennial.

Batac was officially organized into a ministry on January 5, 1586. The first priest assigned to cathecize the natives of tile community was Fr. Esteban Marin, an Augustinian who probably arrived in Batac in 1585. Paoay and Dinglas (Dingras) were then the visitas of Batac.

Folk history states that there were two villages in Batac during the early part of tile foundation of the town, one was an Itneg community which occupied sitio Nangalisan and a Christian community occupying San Jose.

The first site of tile poblacion was in San Jose, which is now called Barangay Palpalicong. It is said that the ethnic minority groups of Bangui and Nueva Era are the pre-Spanish descendants of early inhabitants of Batac.

The Augustinians considered the people of Batac more civilized than tile other tribes, because they were better than the other “Indios” in personal cleanliness.

St. Joseph Parish, Dingras, Ilocos Norte

Saint Joseph Parish, Dingras, Ilocos NorteIn 1598, the Augustinians founded Dingras as Ginglas. On the same year, it was placed under the patronage of San Jose. Dingras became one of the oldest and biggest ministries in the entire Ilocos region until year 1690. It was one of the visitas of batac in 1589. On July 8 of that year, Dingras was made a ministry with Fray Bartolome Conrado as its first parish priest. As such, it remained as one of the six encomiendas in Ilocos of the King of Spain in 1591. However, on October 31, 1603, Dingras was given back as visita to Batac, perhaps, because of its failure to become the mission center for the conversion of the interior settlements in the Ilocos.

In 1680, the Augustinians built a church. However it was destroyed by a strong earthquake in 1707. Another church which was more spacious and massive was erected by Fray Damaso Vieztez. In 1838, Fathers Deza and Franco remodeled the church impressively. But fire later gutted the edifice. Te ruins still evidence of a once splendid structure, regarded by historians as one of the three earthquake baroque churches. The others are those of Magsingal (Ilocos Sur Province) and Laoag City.

“Hubo” Ritual at the end of the Sinulog Festival

Sto. Nino Image without dressA few days after the feast of the Sto. Niño de Cebu every Third Sunday of January, the so-called “Hubo” (a Cebuano term meaning “naked”) ritual takes place during the early morning celebration of the Holy Mass, marking the end of the Sinulog Festival in Cebu. Seen from the outside, it appears as a simple rite of undressing, bathing and redressing the image of the Holy Child. The icon is stripped of its elaborate festive garments, washed, and dressed with a simpler garb.

Perhaps for many devotees flocking to the city of Cebu for the Sinulog Festivel, Hubo is only a symbolic re-enactment of something which takes place in their home every single day: a mother or a father or some adult bathing a child either at the start of the day so as to prepare  him/her for the day’s activities or at the end of it to wash away all the dirt that the child’s body has accumulated throughout the day. And we surmise and muse on thinking that the Sto. Niño image must have accumulated a similar amount of dirt during the almost two-week long celebration in his honor and, thus, needs such a washing up!

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